Trickle Down Accessibility

Disclaimer

This presentation is not about reducing your support for blind and low-vision. It’s about building better products by expanding your outreach. This topic could be considered controversial, but that’s not the intention. This is about expansion. Focusing on screen reader accessibility has distinct advantages for product developers. If your application works with a screen reader, it should also be usable with a keyboard, voice recognition, and switch control devices. Screen reader accessibility also falls in line with automated testing tools. However, there are many disabilities, and assistive technologies, that are not necessarily benefited by this focus on the blind/low-vision community. Color contrast, closed captioning, readability, consistency in design, user customization, session timeouts, and animation distraction are just a few examples of concerns that often go unaddressed.

The Original Tweet

Trickle Down Theory suggests economic growth benefits all members of society. The focus is on tax benefits for corporations and the higher income population, as they have the potential for making larger impacts in economic growth. Providing financial incentives to this population will, in theory, eventually result in higher prosperity for all.

Amazon Echo

I don’t want to make products FOR people with disabilities. I want to make products WITH people with a disability FOR everyone -Peter Korn, Director, Accessibility, Amazon Lab126

Peter Korn made this statement at the White House Disability and Inclusive Technology Summit, November 2016

Accessibility-First Design

Accessibility-First Design: In this chart, products are built to provide support for customers with the most difficulties.

Target for Inclusive Design; 21% No difficulties, 16% minimal difficulties, 37% mild difficulties, 25% severe difficulties; target for specialist products
Source: Inclusive Design Toolkit

This is a positive method of trickle down, as this will provide support for all users. For example: Using a readable sans-serif font supports those with low-vision and print disabilities. It also trickles down to making the page readable for the complete user base. Improving readability of text in the Web is one of the most simple and effective ways to improve usability and ease access to information – also for people with special needs, such as elderly people, or people with print disabilities, such as people with low vision or dyslexia.

These findings provide evidence that text-heavy websites should use fonts of size 18 or larger and use default line spacing when the goal is to make a web page easy to read and comprehend. Make It Big! The Effect of Font Size and Line Spacing on Online Readability(.pdf) CHI ’16: ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. San Jose, CA, May 7-12.

Tracking Emotions

Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions includes the level of emotion, not just the emotional category. Learn to accurately track user experience. Primary emotions: anger, anticipation, joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness and disgust But these also have varying degrees of intensity. If left unchecked, emotions can intensify.

User Reactions

Verbal Cues

  • Tone of Voice
  • I have to enter the same information again
  • Sighs (keep track by using ~ )
  • Laughter (nervous and genuine)

Nonverbal Cues

  • Typing louder
  • Rolling eyes, Scrunching of the nose
  • Moving in chair, circling with mouse

Learn more about understanding user testing cues from Tragic Design

Examples

Mozzeria Interview

interview with Russ and Melody Stein at MozzeriaIn 2016, Members of the QuickBooks Online team visited Mozzeria in San Francisco to learn more about deaf entrepreneurship. Key learnings were the difficulty in finding an accountant and managing deliveries. ProAdvisors are accountants that have proven their experience with Intuit’s accounting software. Intuit provides a profile and search capability for each member.

In 2017, Languages was added to the profile and Sign Language is one of the options. This will make it easier for people to find an accountant that speaks their language. While driven by learnings from Mozzeria, it will help all of our customers that speak English as a second language. For instance, Deaf Tax.

xBox Emoji Keyboard

Microsoft’s user research found Deaf gamers wanted more expression with their multi-player game communication. This led to the introduction of emojis.

John McWhorter, an American linguist professor at Columbia University, says emoji are not a language on their own, but they make our thoughts more complete. “They add on a part of language that often gets lost in writing, the expressive and personal part,” he says.Emoji Aren’t Silly—They Could Actually Help the Deaf

Data Mining

Gathering actual data, through data mining and through direct communication with your clients who have disabilities, is the only way to truly provide accessibility. You can sit in an offie and brainstorm what issues a client might have all day long, but you will not, by doing this, get the same quality of insight into real world problems faced by people with disabilities who are trying to use your products unless you get that information directly from them and from their experiences. You cannot imagine all of the possible issues and barriers without their experience and their help. During the research phase of the project, the same thing kept being brought up by the deaf business owners. When they had problems with wanting to know how to use a product, they did not want to call a phone number, they strongly preferred being able to use live chat on our website. They both identified a barrier and the solution that they preferred.

Data Mining Keywords

When using keywords you need to use a wide variety because people do not use one uniform term to apply to any one disability. For example, a person could use “low vision”, “visually impaired”, and “blind” to refer a visual disability. Download and contribute to this set of keywords: Accessibility Data Keywords – GitHub

Disambiguation

  • Turn a deaf ear to…
  • Blind as a bat…
  • Impaired driving…

While doing data mining, you need to be careful about what you find. Keywords will also pull up things that are not connected to disabilities. For example, in my situation, when I used the term “deaf”, I was startled to find a huge number of responses. But upon looking at the data more closely, I saw that the same phrase was being used repeatedly “turn a deaf ear to…” and this was not connected to any disability.

What does accessibility mean?

Making a product or service accessible to a person with a disability should not mean forcing the person with the disability to adapt to use your concept of what is accessible. Ideally, you should adjust your product or service to fit the abilities of the person with the disability.

For the deaf, not being able to hear may not be the real barrier. For many deaf and hard of hearing literacy is a barrier and language is a barrier. Approximately 44% of the deaf do not graduate from high school. Of those who do, half of all deaf high school graduates read at below a 4th grade level. This means that only about 25% of deaf adults read at above a 4th grade level, and only about 3% read at an 8th grade level. If you want to serve this group, how do you approach the issue of literacy?

Captioning videos is a solution to the barrier presented by not being able to hear the audio, but it is not a solution to the literacy or language barrier faced by many deaf. Think of this as a positive challenge. You have an opportunity to open up your product or service to this group of people through figuring out how to make your product or service accessible to them. I have a funny story for you, and it happens to be true. When I was in high school, in one of my classes, my teacher came up to me and said, excitedly, “I have a video to show to the class, today, and it is captioned so you will be able to understand it!” The video started and I sat there confused. Yes, it was captioned… but in Korean.

The point of this story is that the video was accessible, which was a great thing, but did not fit my needs. Have you thought about instructional videos in ASL? Have you considered the reading level required to access information that you provide? Have you thought about other ways to make things accessible?

Microsoft Translator

Only a few years ago, when I wanted to communicate with hearing people, we would write back and forth on a notepad. This did not work well because most hearing people feel burdened by having to write, and it was time consuming. Now, due to speech recognition apps, such as Microsoft Translator, things have changed. More hearing people are willing to use it to communicate with me. And it is very helpful in work situations. Microsoft Translator’s adoption for the deaf and hard of hearing was influenced by early feedback from a deaf engineer at Microsoft.

There is some room for improvement, but the current generation of speech recognition is vastly superior to only a couple years ago. Apps such as this allow for easier daily integration of the deaf and hard of hearing into conversational situations. This may not seem radical to you, but for most deaf people, workplaces are isolating. They are excluded from both social and work conversations and often given only the barest of recaps and summaries of even important information.

Chronic Pain and Package Design

Ideo planned the packaging for the Quell device to reduce frustration and anxiety. “People with pain have a lot to deal with,” Gozani says. “We want to take away any hassle.” It takes about a minute to set up the device and calibrate the stimulation levels.

Nike FlyEase Shoes

These shoes were inspired by a letter Matthew Walzer wrote to Nike about his desire to wear cool sneakers that he could put on by himself. “My dream is to go to the college of my choice without having to worry about someone coming to tie my shoes every day,” he wrote, according to Nike. “As a teenager who is striving to become totally self-sufficient, I find this extremely frustrating and, at times, embarrassing.”

xBox Co-Pilot

Enabling Xbox One to be accessible for everyone: One important area for us with this release is to enable Xbox One to be able to be used and played by everyone.

Take for instance our new Copilot feature which allows two controllers to act as if they were one. This will help make Xbox One more inviting to new gamers needing assistance, more fun by adding cooperative controls for any game and easier for players who need unique configurations to play — whether that is with hands apart, hand and chin, hand and foot, etc.. We are also adding new enhancements to Magnifier and Narrator, as well as giving more options over audio output and custom rumble settings on a controller, which was previously reserved for the Xbox Elite Controller.

You can find these accessibility options, and more, in Settings > Ease of Access.
Co-Pilot, Xbox One’s New Accessibility Feature – Microsoft

Deaf Space Design Guide

Deaf Space is a set of architectural guidelines developed via Gaulladet University and define how buildings and spaces can better accommodate deaf and hard of hearing communication.

Inclusive Design

Explore inclusive design via the following projects:

Action Items

  • Data mine for hidden customer feedback
  • Reach out to Deaf, Baby Boomer, and Dyslexic customers
  • Start an employee network for disabilities. Use it as a resource.
  • Download Microsoft’s Inclusive Design Toolkit
  • Test for Readability. Meet with your content team.

Trickle Down Accessibility – CSUN Preview

Matt May tweeted an observation in 2016 introducing Trickle-Down Accessibility and recognized prioritizing our blind customers could lead to less support for others.
Continue Reading Trickle Down Accessibility – CSUN Preview

I will be discussing Trickle-Down Accessibility at the 2018 CSUN Assistive Technology Conference on Wednesday, March 21 at 2:20 pm in Cortez Hill C, 3rd Floor, Seaport Tower.

The following is the proposal for this presentation. I will publish the final presentation for further details.

Trickle-Down Accessibility Proposal

Trickle Down Economics[1] suggests economic growth benefits all members of society. The focus is on tax benefits for corporations and the higher income population, as they have the potential for making larger impacts in economic growth. Providing financial incentives to this population will, in theory, eventually result in higher prosperity for all.

Matt May’s observation on Twitter in 2016 raised awareness of Trickle Down Accessibility:

“Watching a blind advocate tell someone with another disability to center blind issues first and wait for the benefits to trickle down. Wow. [2]

Focusing on screen reader accessibility has distinct advantages for product developers. If your application works with a screen reader, it should also be usable with a keyboard, voice recognition, and switch control devices. Screen reader accessibility also falls in line with automated testing tools.

However, there are many disabilities, and assistive technologies, that are not necessarily benefited by this focus on the blind/low-vision community. Color contrast, closed captioning, readability, consistency in design, user customization, session timeouts, and animation distraction are just a few examples of concerns that often go unaddressed.

Continue Reading Trickle Down Accessibility – CSUN Preview

Accessibility Data Metrics and Reporting – Industry Best Practices

Learn how your company can collect and share data metrics for accessible product development, employee resources, and customer outreach. This presentation reflects lessons learned from the Intuit Accessibility team and other technology companies. Continue Reading Accessibility Data Metrics and Reporting – Industry Best Practices

The key to good decision making is evaluating the available information – the data – and combining it with your own estimates of pluses and minuses. As an economist, I do this every day.

Emily Oster, Brown University

Continue Reading Accessibility Data Metrics and Reporting – Industry Best Practices

Ubiquitous Transactions – Financial Future and Accessibility

This short presentation was created for the Wearable Computing Solutions panel at the M-Enabling Summit 2016. It introduces some new and upcoming standards that could simplify financial transactions and thus making them more accessible.

Continue Reading Ubiquitous Transactions – Financial Future and Accessibility

Notes from G3ict International Briefing: Inclusive Financial Services for Seniors and Persons with Disabilities

I was invited to represent Intuit at a meeting in Paris to discuss how International financial institutions could provide accessible experiences for their customers and employees. The event was organized by G3ICT and built upon the work done for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The following are notes I’ve extracted from the presentations listed below. There’s a wealth of information contained within these presentations and each is worth opening and studying.

Ted Drake Intuit and Robin Sargent, Business Development Executive, IBM Accessibility

Speakers and links

  • Matt Ater, Vice President, Services, Freedom Scientific • Presentation and Presentation
  • Dominique Burger, President, BrailleNet, European eAccessibility Forum
  • Alireza Darvishy, Head, Accessibility Center, Crédit Suisse • Presentation
  • Ted Drake, Accessibility Principal Engineer, Intuit • Presentation
  • Gita Esmieu, Director, Financial Services Accessibility Program, G3ict
  • Serge Leblal, Editorial Director, CIO and Le Monde Informatique
  • Axel Leblois, President and Executive Director, G3ict • Presentation
  • Dr. Monique Mai, Accessibility Group Department, Director “Communication, Remote Sales & Public Affairs,” Orange Group • Presentation
  • Sara Mansell, Design Lead, IBM • Presentation
  • Jean-Michel Mépuis, Director, Sustainable Development and CSR, Société Générale
  • Nicola Palmarini, Global Digital Creative & Technology Advocate, IBM Accessibility / IBM Research • Presentation
  • Inmaculada Placencia-Porrero, Deputy Head of Unit for Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Directorate General for Justice, European Commission • Presentation
  • Jean Royné, Director General, IT News Info
  • Robin Sargent, Business Development Executive, IBM Accessibility • Presentation
  • Paul Smyth, Head of IT Accessibility, Barclays • Presentation
  • James Thurston, Vice President, Global Strategy and Development, G3ict • Presentation
  • Yves Veulliet, Global Disability & Inclusion Program Manager – Global Diversity HR, IBM • Presentation
  • Frances West, Chief Accessibility Officer, IBM

Alireza Darvishy, Head, Accessibility Center, Crédit Suisse

For our clients, we provide the following accessible products and services

  • Bank statements in Braille
  • Bank statements in larger fonts
  • Talking ATMs
  • Sign language interpreter for deaf clients
  • Induction system for hearing impaired clients

Axel Leblois, President and Executive Director, G3ict

Three Major Global Drivers for Accessibility
Compliance in Financial Services

  1. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  2. United States jurisprudence and regulatory activity
  3. European Accessibility Act

ICT Accessibility: An Extensive Set of Dispositions in the CRPD

  • Preamble – Defines accessibility as an enabler for Persons with Disabilities to exercise their rights
  • Article 3 (f) – Identifies Accessibility as one of its 8 general principles
  • Article 9 – Elevates ICT Accessibility obligations on par with those for the built environment and transportation

“Access/Accessible/Accessibility” – 17 uses throughout the CRPD

CRPD includes avenues for documenting failures and steps to compliance.

UN CRPD Committee Decision Sets Clear Precedent (May 16, 2013)

Case against Hungarian banks not providing accessible ATMs was submitted to CRPD Committee

Committee referred to article 9.2 (b) of the Convention

Concluded that:

  • Hungary had failed its CRPD State Party obligations
  • Must remedy the situation of inaccessible ATMs

UN CRPD Committee also Mandated Hungary to:

  • Establish minimum standards for the accessibility of banking services provided by private financial institutions
    for persons with visual and other types of impairments
  • Create a legislative framework with concrete, enforceable and time – bound benchmarks for monitoring and assessing the gradual modification and adjustment by private financial institutions of previously inaccessible banking services provided by them into accessible ones
  • Ensure that all newly procured ATMs and other banking services are fully accessible for persons with disabilities

Dr. Monique Mai, Accessibility Group Department, Director “Communication, Remote Sales & Public Affairs,” Orange Group

3 categories of service: Mobile Money, NFC Payment, and Mobile Banking
Orange Accessibility’s missions

  • integrate accessibility from conception to delivery
  • create adapted product and service range for the seniors and disabled people (Fr, Spain…)
  • develop distribution networks
  • drive web accessibility policy
  • communicate and set up partnerships
  • public affairs (CSR, regulation, standardization)

Sara Mansell, Design Lead, IBM

IBM Design Thinking
Sample design specification
Accessible products begin with clearly defined keyboard navigation specifications

Universal design

The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design (Ron Mace, 1988)

Inclusive Design

Products, services and environments that include the needs of the widest number of consumers (UK Government 2000)

Design for All

Everything that is designed and made by people to be used by people – must be accessible, convenient for everyone in society to use and responsive to evolving human diversity (European Institute for Design and Disability (EIDD) Stockholm Declaration in 2004)

Nicola Palmarini, Global Digital Creative & Technology Advocate, IBM Accessibility / IBM Research

New clients: the aging

  • Market for aging population is a >$20 Trillion World Wide opportunity.
  • US – Estimated assets for this demographic $8.4 to $11.6 Trillion
  • Rising Eldercare costs will disrupt economies 6% of US GDP will account for social service costs for the Elder. Double the current percentage.

The challenge is converting a world built by and for the young into a world that supports and engages population that live 100 years and beyond.

Other demographic factors affect the business

Seniors cannot be treated as a homogeneous population, but comprise different subgroups.

The third age ( young old ) describes older adults’ healthy and active life phase, which is characterized by the continuation of their former lifestyle after retirement (approximately from 65 to 80).

The fourth age ( oldest old ) beginning roughly at 80, is associated with fading health and independence.

Elderly people can also be very active

  • 30% to 80% of seniors over 65 still travel.
  • On average, seniors spend 5 of every 7 days outside their homes.
  • 68% of seniors have their own cars.
  • Two-thirds of seniors have a partner.
  • 75% of seniors are grandparents.
  • Approximately 70% of seniors with children see the m several times per month or week.
  • 45% of seniors engage in volunteering activities .
  • 42% of seniors feel healthy or very health

Some challenges

Understand
Need for story telling and simplification to understand and buy new business models
Compliance & Access
Bare access to digital services is still an issue/ Compliance is driven by business performance
Usability and Accessibility
Huge Usability and accessibility gap: in the United Stat es, older boomers are over 95% underserviced and senior s manage to complete only 55.3% of tasks online.
Privacy
Biometric rise the issue of privacy
Fraud
Easy of access rise the risk of fraud: in US only elder fra ud accounted for $36 Billion in losses in 2014

Inmaculada Placencia-Porrero, Deputy Head of Unit for Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Directorate General for Justice, European Commission

Why an European Accessibility Act?

Economic reasons

  • Free circulation of accessible products & services
  • more accessible and cheaper products/services for 80M of EU citizens • Divergence of national legislations
  • fragmentation of the EU Market
  • counterproductive for enterprises
  • Opening markets for being ready for global competitiveness

Legal Obligations

  • The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) entered into force for the EU in 2011
  • Its obligations increase the risk of divergent accessibility legislations in MS
  • The EAA helps to implement the obligations of article 9 on Accessibility

Products & services in the scope of the EAA

  • Computers and operating systems
  • ATMs, ticketing and check – in machines
  • Telephones and smartphones
  • TV equipment related to digital television services
  • Telephony services and related equipment
  • Audio – visual media services (AVMS) and related equipment
  • Air, bus, rail and waterborne passenger transport services
  • Banking services
  • E – books
  • E – commerce

Robin Sargent, Business Development Executive, IBM Accessibility

Apple, IBM, and Japan Post Group are reimagining elder care in Japan

The Aging Population is growing at rapid rate

Seniors=25 % of Japan’s population. Projected to grow to 40 percent by 2055

  • Fear of being alone
  • Afraid of being Institutionalized
  • Concerned about someone else taking control or
  • Losing control

So much of what happens within your social sphere affects your healthcare …… And depression is big issue with elderly people

IBM and Apple collaboratively designed a suite of apps that provide structure and transparency to eder care at home. There are three components

  1. Elder Support – handled by Postal/Commercial Elder Support Services or Assistance Worker
  2. Elder at Home – The Senior at home alone
  3. Elder Advocate – Friend, Family, Carer

Elder Support

1 of 3 interdependent apps in the Elder at Home Suite, Elder Support is for enterprise workers assigned to monitor and assist sponsored or subscribed elders living alone and using the Elder at Home app and their families using the Elder Advocate app.

Elder at Home

Central to Elder at Home Suite, the app is specially designed for use by elders providing reminders for meds, real – time interactions with family and support service provider through associated apps, and ability to incorporate 3rd party services in ecosystem established by a client organization. Such services may include shopping, community activities, and social service requests

Elder Advocate

The app for families of subscribed or sponsored seniors, it supports and interacts with senior activity on the Elder at Home app as well as Elder Support worker app for monitoring and remote support of senior for collaborative, interactive, assistance, and communication with far – away loved ones

Paul Smyth, Head of IT Accessibility, Barclays

Accessibility resources from Barclays

Ted Drake, Accessibility Principal Engineer, Intuit

Read the full presentation: Future Accessibility for Financial Services for Seniors and Persons with Disabilities

Reducing the effort for a customer will bring better usability and accessibility. The evolution from paper based financial tracking to electronic has already given users greater control over their financial records

How do we balance the need for security while also minimizing the cognitive load for our customers? Near Field Communication, bio-metrics, and multi-factor authentication have already improved the experience, what is next?